The Background

It is well documented that the use and overuse of drugs, and especially antimicrobials, in both human and lifestock populations has increased globally. Combined with inadequate treatment and separation of waste and wastewater streams this is facilitating the spread of drug-resistant strains of bacteria in drinking water, food sources and the wider ecosystem; directly affecting the health of humans and survival of other species.

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) occurs when genetic changes take place in microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. This can render medications and antiseptics ineffective against various infections.